Description: Award-winning author Susan Zuccotti begins by uncovering a surprising prevalence of anti-Jewish sentiment in Vatican and Jesuit publications of prewar years. She then explores vast numbers of archival documents to bring to light the secret negotiations of Pius XI and Pius XII as well as many other Vatican officials. She delves into the extent of the Vatican's practical efforts to help Italian and foreign Jews. What were their efforts and did they even approve of the rescues that were accomplished? Zuccotti demonstrates with new clarity the degree to which the Pope himself took action, the extent to which he encouraged others to act, and the magnitude of the Vatican's failure to assist Italy's Jews.